- AZELAIC ACID
- DIOIC ACID
- ASCORBIC ACID
- PHYTIC ACID
- FERRULIC ACID & MIXED TOCOPHEROLS
- KOJIC ACID
- SALICYLIC ACID
Mandelic acid is an excellent exfoliant and is:
39 patient split face study comparing
Kojic Acid 2% & Glycolic Acid 5% with
Hydroquinone 2% & GA 5%
showed better results with Kojic Acid. *
Double Blind 80 patient Multi-ethnic study comparing
Hydroquinone 4% with KA & GA combination
showed both to be equally effective over 12 Weeks, with less side effects.**
*REF-Dermat Surg 1996;22;443-447.Alica Garcia BS James F Fulton Jr MD.
**REF-Draelos ZD,Yatskayerm et al.Dermatology Consulting Services,High Point,N Carolina,USA.
The formation of all-trans retinoic acid is an oxidative process whereby retinol is converted to retinaldehyde and then to retinoic acid.
Retinol is the chosen exfoliant because it has been shown to penetrate skin more effectively than Retinoic acid or Retinyl Palmitate to give the best inside-out peeling possible.
This avoids the inflammation or necrosis involved with high strength AHAs.
REF-Unoccluded Retinol penetrates Human skin in vivo more effectively than unoccluded Retinoic acid or Retinyl palmitate.Journal of Investigative Dermatology(1997)109,301-305;doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12335788.Dept of Dermatology ,University of Michigan Med School,Ann Arbor,Michigan,USA.Elizabeth A Diell et al.
Azelaic acid only works on Hyperactive Melanocytes where DNA synthesis is fast.
Ref-Arch Dermatol Res1990;282(3).168-171.A possible mechanism of action for Azelaic Acid in the human Epidermis.Schallenter KU et al,Dept of Dermatology,University of Hamburg,Germany.
Cultured Human Melanoma cells & three dimensional human skin model treated with Alpha Arbutin showed:
REF 1-Pharm Bull.2004 April;27(4):510-4.Inhibitory effects of alpha-arbutin on melanin synthesis in cultured human melanoma cells and a three-dimansional human skin model.Sugimoto K,Nishimura T,Nomura K,Kuriki T.Biochemical Research Laboratory,Ezaki Glico Co Ltd.,4-6-5 Utajima,Nishiyadogawa-ku,Osaka 555-8502,Japan.
An open comparative study of NINETY SIX (96 female) Melasma patients in an open, comparative, 12 week study between
Dioic Acid 1% & Hydroquinone 2% showed:
This acid is a Di-carboxylic acid (dioic) like Azelaic but is 18 Carbon atoms long instead of 9 carbons like Azelaic.
It is made from Bio-fermentation of Oleic acid using Yeasts.
REF4-Efficacy of Dioc (Octadecene-dioic acid)compared with Hydroquinone in the treatment of Melasma.Int J Dermatol.2009Aug;48(8):893-5.Tirado-Sanchez A,Santamaria-Roman A,Ponce-Olivera RM.
A twenty patient placebo study on patients of Indian and Pakistani origin given Octadecene-dioic acid 2% over 8 weeks showed:
16 patient slit-face randomized study in Melasma patients comparing Ascorbic acid 5% with Hydroquinone 4% showed:
Side effects recorded:
Ref: A double blind randomized trial of 5% ascorbic acid vs. 4% hydroquinone in melasma | International Journal of Dermatology | Volume 43, Issue 8, pages 604-607, Aug 2004 | Liliana Elizabeth Espinal Perez MD et al.
An effective whitening agent
Ref-12-The depigmenting effect of tocopheryl ferulate on human melanoma cells. Br J Dermatol.1999 Jul;141(1)141(1):20-9.
Phytic acid chelates Copper & Iron in skin (makes them unavailable)
A double blind, vehicle controlled trial in 30 healthy subjects with greater than 2 Solar Lentigines were randomly signed to apply
Ascorbic Acid 10% + Phytic Acid 2%
over 3 months showed statistically significant improvement between study drug & vehicle.
Ref: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology | volume 10, issue 4, pages 266-272, Dec 2011 | Randomozed controlled study to evaluate the depigmenting activity of L-Ascorbic acid plus Phytic Acid | Abdullah Khemis MD et al.